Scientific Publications

Albertella, L., Le Pelley, M.E., Chamberlain, S.R., Westbrook, F., Fontenelle, L.F., Segrave, R., Lee, R., Pearson, D., Yücel, M., 2019. Reward-related attentional capture is associated with severity of addictive and obsessive–compulsive behaviors. Psychol. Addict. Behav. 33, 495–502.

Bányai, F., Griffiths, M. D., Király, O., & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). The Psychology of Esports: A Systematic Literature Review. doi: 10.1007/s10899-018-9763-1

Bányai F, Griffiths MD, Demetrovics Z, Király O. The mediating effect of motivations between psychiatric distress and gaming disorder among esport gamers and recreational gamers. Compr Psychiatry. 2019;94:152117. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2019.152117

Bányai, F., Zsila, Á., Demetrovics, Z., & Király, O. (2017). A problémás videojáték-használat újabb elméleti és gyakorlati megközelítései. INFORMÁCIÓS TÁRSADALOM: TÁRSADALOMTUDOMÁNYI FOLYÓIRAT, 18(1), 93-106.

Blum, A.W., Chamberlain, S.R., Grant, J.E., 2018. Quality of life of young adults with non-paraphilic problematic sexual behaviors: An exploratory study. Addict. Behav. Reports 8, 164–169.

Bowden-Jones, H., Hook, R.W., Grant, J.E., Ioannidis, K., Corazza, O., Fineberg, N.A., Singer, B., Roberts, A., Bethlehem, R., Dymond, S., Romero-Garcia, R., Robbins, T.W., Cortese, S., Thomas, S.A., Sahakian, B.J., Dowling, N.A., Chamberlain, S., 2021. Gambling Disorder in the United Kingdom: key research priorities and the urgent need for independent research funding. Lancet Psychiatry.

Brakoulias V, Starcevic V, Albert U, Arumugham SS, Bailey BE, Belloch A, Borda T, Dell’Osso L, Elias JA, Falkenstein MJ, Ferrao YA, Fontenelle LF, Jelinek L, Kalogeraki L, Kay B, Laurito LD, Lochner C, Maina G, Marazziti D, Martin A, Matsunaga H, Miguel EC, Morgado P, Mourikis I, Pasquini M, Perez Rivera R, Potluri S, Reddy JYC, Riemann BC, do Rosario MC, Shavitt RG, Stein DJ, Viswasam K, Wang Z, Fineberg NA. Treatments used for obsessive-compulsive disorder-An international perspective. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2019 Jan;34(1):e2686. doi: 10.1002/hup.2686. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Brand, M., Rumpf, H.-J., King, D. L., Potenza, M. N., & Wegmann, E. (2020). Clarifying terminologies in research on gaming disorder and other addictive behaviors: Distinctions between core symptoms and underlying psychological processes. Current Opinion in Psychology.

Brand, M., Wegmann, E., Rumpf, H-J., Demetrovics, Z., Müller, A., Stark, R., King, D. L., Goudriaan, A. E., Mann, K., Trotzke, P., Fineberg, N., Chamberlain, S. R., Kraus, S. W., Wegmann, E., Billieux, J., Potenza, M. N. (2020). Which conditionsshould be considered as disorders in theICD-11 designation of“other specified disorders due to addictive behaviors”? Journal of Behavioral Addictions. [Ahead of Print].

Brand, M., Wegmann, E., Stark, R., Müller, A., Wölfling, K., Robbins, T. W., & Potenza, M. N. (2019). The Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model for addictive behaviors: Update, generalization to addictive behaviors beyond Internet-use disorders, and specification of the process character of addictive behaviors. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews

Castro-Calvo, J., Ballester-Arnal, R., Potenza, M.N., King, D.L., Billieux, J., 2018. Does “forced abstinence” from gaming lead to pornography use? Insight from the April 2018 crash of Fortnite’s servers. J. Behav. Addict. 7, 501–502.

Castro‐Calvo, J., King, D. L., Stein, D. J., Brand, M., Carmi, L., Chamberlain, S. R., … & Billieux, J. Expert appraisal of criteria for assessing gaming disorder: An international Delphi study. Addiction.

Chamberlain SR et al J The impact of comorbid impulsive/compulsive disorders in problematic Internet use. Behav Addict. 2018 Jun 1;7(2):269-275.

Chamberlain, S.R., Harries, M., Redden, S.A., Keuthen, N.J., Stein, D.J., Lochner, C., Grant, J.E., 2018. Cortical thickness abnormalities in trichotillomania: international multi-site analysis. Brain Imaging Behav. 12, 823–828.

Chamberlain, S.R., Tiego, J., Fontenelle, L.F., Hook, R., Parkes, L., Segrave, R., Hauser, T.U., Dolan, R.J., Goodyer, I.M., Bullmore, E., Grant, J.E., Yücel, M., 2019. Fractionation of impulsive and compulsive trans-diagnostic phenotypes and their longitudinal associations. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 53, 896–907.

Corazza, O., Simonato, P., Demetrovics, Z., Mooney, R., van de Ven, K., Roman-Urrestarazu, A., Rácmolnár, L., De Luca, I., Cinosi, E., Santacroce, R., Marini, M., Wellsted, D., Sullivan, K., Bersani, G., Martinotti, G., 2019. The emergence of Exercise Addiction, Body Dysmorphic Disorder, and other image-related psychopathological correlates in fitness settings: A cross sectional study. PLoS One 14.

Dell’Osso, B., Vismara, M., Benatti, B., Cirnigliaro, G., Grancini, B., Fineberg, N.A., Van Ameringen, M., Hollander, E., Stein, D.J., Menchon, J.M., Rodriguez, C.I., Nicolini, H., Lanzagorta, N., Pallanti, S., Grassi, G., Lochner, C., Marazziti, D., Hranov, G., Karamustafalioglu, O., Hranov, L., Zohar, J., 2019. Lifetime bipolar disorder comorbidity and related clinical characteristics in patients with primary obsessive compulsive disorder: a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS). CNS Spectr. 1–7.

Devos, M.G., Clark, L., Bowden-Jones, H., Grall-Bronnec, M., Challet-Bouju, G., Khazaal, Y., Maurage, P., Billieux, J., 2020. The joint role of impulsivity and distorted cognitions in recreational and problem gambling: A cluster analytic approach. J. Affect. Disord. 260, 473–482.

Dores, A. R., Rocha, Carvalho, I. C., Paiva, T., Geraldo, A., Clark, L., Wu, Y. & Barbosa, F. (2020). Neurophysiological Correlates of the Near-Miss Effect in Gambling, Journal of Gambling Studies, (), 1-16. doi: 10.1007/s10899-020-09937-2

Fernandez-Aranda, F., Granero, R., Mestre-Bach, G., Steward, T., Müller, A., Brand, M., … & Mallorqui-Bague, N. (2019). Spanish validation of the pathological buying screener in patients with eating disorder and gambling disorder. Journal of behavioral addictions, 8(1), 123-134.

Fineberg NA, Dell’Osso B, Albert A,,Maina G, Geller D, Carmi L, Sireau N, Walitza S, Grassi G, Pallanti S, Hollander E, Brakoulias V, Menchon JM, Marazziti D, IoannidisK,  Apergis-Schoute A, Stein DJ, Cath DC, Veltman DJ, Van Ameringen M, Fontenelle LF, Shavitt RG, Costa D,  Diniz JB and Zohar J.  Early Intervention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder:  An Expert Consensus Statement. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacology (accepted for publication Feb 2nd 2019)

Fineberg NA, Demetrovics Z, Stein DJ, Ioannidis K, Potenza MN), Grünblatt E, Brand M, Billieux J, Carmi L, King DL, Grant JE , Yücel M, Dell’Osso B, Rumpf HJ, Hall N, Hollander E,Goudriaan AE, Menchon J, Zohar J, Burkauskas J, Martinotti G , Van Ameringen M , Corazza O, Pallanti S, COST Action Network and Chamberlain SR.  Manifesto for a European Research Network into Problematic Usage of the Internet. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. Volume 28, Issue 11, November 2018, Pages 1232-1246

Fineberg NA, Apergis-Schoute AM, Vaghi MM, Banca P, Gillan CM, Voon V, Chamberlain SR, Cinosi E, Reid J, Shahper S, Bullmore ET, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW. Mapping Compulsivity in the DSM-5 Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders: Cognitive Domains, Neural Circuitry, and Treatment. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Jan 1;21(1):42-58. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx088.

Fineberg NA, Van Ameringen M, Drummond L, Hollander E, Stein DJ, Geller D, Walitza S, Pallanti S, Pellegrini L, Zohar J, Rodriguez CI, Menchon JM, Morgado P, Mpavaenda D, Fontenelle LF, Feusner JD, Grassi G, Lochner C, Veltman DJ, Sireau N, Carmi L, Adam D, Nicolini H, Dell’Osso B. How to manage obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) under COVID-19: A clinician’s guide from the International College of Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) and the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders Research Network (OCRN) of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Compr Psychiatry. 2020 Apr 12;100:152174. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152174. [Epub ahead of print]

Grant, J.E., Chamberlain, S.R., 2018. Sleepiness and impulsivity: Findings in non-treatment seeking young adults. J. Behav. Addict. 7, 737–742.

Ioannidis K, et al. Problematic internet use as an age-related multifaceted problem: Evidence from a two-site survey. Addict Behav. 2018 Jun;81:157-166.

Ioannidis K, Hook R, Goudriaan AE, Vlies S, Fineberg NA, Grant JE, Chamberlain SR. Cognitive deficits in problematic internet use: meta-analysis of 40 studies. Br J Psychiatry. 2019 Feb 20:1-8.

Ioannidis, K., Redden, S.A., Valle, S., Chamberlain, S.R., Grant, J.E., 2019. Problematic internet use: An exploration of associations between cognition and COMT rs4818, rs4680 haplotypes. CNS Spectr.

King, D. L., S. R. Chamberlain, N. Carragher, J. Billieux, D. Stein, K. Mueller, M. N. Potenza, H. J. Rumpf, J. Saunders, V. Starcevic, Z. Demetrovics, M. Brand, H. K. Lee, M. Spada, K. Lindenberg, A. M. S. Wu, T. Lemenager, S. Pallesen, S. Achab, S. Higuchi, N. A. Fineberg and P. H. Delfabbro (2020). Screening and assessment tools for gaming disorder: A comprehensive systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev, 101831. doi:

King, D. L. & Gaming Industry Response Consortium. (2018). Comment on the global gaming industry’s statement on ICD-11 gaming disorder: A corporate strategy to disregard harm and deflect social responsibility? Addiction. DOI: 10.1111/add.14388.

King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., Potenza, M. N., Demetrovics, Z., Billieux, J., & Brand, M. (2019). Logic, evidence and consensus: Towards a more constructive debate on gaming disorder. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 0004867419864435.

King, D.L., Potenza, M.N., 2019. Not Playing Around: Gaming Disorder in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). J. Adolesc. Heal. 64, 5–7.

Király, O., Potenza, M.N., Stein, D.J., King, D.L., Hodgins, D.C., Saunders, J.B., Griffiths, M.D., Gjoneska, B., Billieux, J., Brand, M., Abbott, M.W., Chamberlain, S.R., Corazza, O., Burkauskas, J., Sales, C.M.D., Montag, C., Lochner, C., Grünblatt, E., Wegmann, E., Martinotti, G., Lee, H.K., Rumpf, H.-J., Castro-Calvo, J., Rahimi-Movaghar, A., Higuchi, S., Menchon, J.M., Zohar, J., Pellegrini, L., Walitza, S., Fineberg, N.A., Demetrovics, Z., 2020. Preventing problematic internet use during the COVID-19 pandemic: Consensus guidance. Comprehensive psychiatry 100, 152180.

Király O, Bőthe B, Ramos-Diaz J, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Lukavska K, Hrabec O, Miovsky M, Billieux J, Deleuze J, Nuyens F, Karila L, Griffiths MD, Nagygyörgy K, Urbán R, Potenza MN, King DL, Rumpf HJ, Carragher N, Demetrovics Z. Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10): Measurement invariance and cross-cultural validation across seven language-based samples. Psychol Addict Behav. 2019 Feb;33(1):91-103.

Laconi, S., Urbán, R., Kaliszewska-Czeremska, K., Kuss, D.J., Gnisci, A., Sergi, I., Barke, A., Jeromin, F., Groth, J., Gamez-Guadix, M., Ozcan, N.K., Siomos, K., Floros, G.D., Griffiths, M.D., Demetrovics, Z., Király, O., 2019. Psychometric evaluation of the nine-item problematic Internet use questionnaire (PIUQ-9) in nine European samples of internet users. Front. Psychiatry 10.

Lopez-Fernandez, O., Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., Dawes, C., Pontes, H. M., Justice, L., … & Männikkö, N. (2019). Cross-Cultural Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale in Four Forms and Eight Languages. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.

Lopez-Fernandez, O., Kuss, D.J., Pontes, H.M., Griffiths, M.D., Dawes, C., Justice, L. V, Männikkö, N., Kääriäinen, M., Rumpf, H.-J., Bischof, A., Gässler, A.-K., Romo, L., Kern, L., Morvan, Y., Rousseau, A., Graziani, P., Demetrovics, Z., Király, O., Schimmenti, A., Passanisi, A., Lelonek-Kuleta, B., Chwaszcz, J., Chóliz, M., Zacarés, J.J., Serra, E., Dufour, M., Rochat, L., Zullino, D., Achab, S., Landrø, N.I., Suryani, E., Hormes, J.M., Terashima, J.P., Billieux, J., 2018. Measurement Invariance of the Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV) across Eight Languages. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 15.

Lopez-Fernandez, O., Kuss, D.J., Romo, L., Morvan, Y., Kern, L., Graziani, P., Rousseau, A., Rumpf, H.-J., Bischof, A., Gässler, A.-K., Schimmenti, A., Passanisi, A., Männikkö, N., Kääriänen, M., Demetrovics, Z., Király, O., Chóliz, M., Zacarés, J.J., Serra, E., Griffiths, M.D., Pontes, H.M., Lelonek-Kuleta, B., Chwaszcz, J., Zullino, D., Rochat, L., Achab, S., Billieux, J., 2017. Self-reported dependence on mobile phones in young adults: A European cross-cultural empirical survey. J. Behav. Addict. 6, 168–177.

Metastasio, A., Negri, A., Martinotti, G., Corazza, O., 2018. Transitioning bodies. The case of self-prescribing sexual hormones in gender affirmation in individuals attending psychiatric services. Brain Sci. 8.

Mead, D., & Sharpe, M. (2020). Aligning the “Manifesto for a European Research Network into Problematic Usage of the Internet” with the Diverse Needs of the Professional and Consumer Communities Affected by Problematic Usage of Pornography. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(10), 3462.

Müller, A., Brand, M., Claes, L., Demetrovics, Z., de Zwaan, M., Fernández-Aranda, F., … & Mitchell, J. E. (2019). Buying-shopping disorder—is there enough evidence to support its inclusion in ICD-11?. CNS spectrums, 1-6.

Pau, Louis-Francois, Internet Addictions and Problematic Use of the Internet: Terminology and Causalities (November 24, 2019).

Pentek, M.; T. Wijeratne, M. Jakovljevic, G. Kockaya, L-F Pau (Eds). Accelerated Globalization and its Impact to the World’s Health Care Achievement, Frontiers Research Topics J.

Potenza, M. N., Faust, K., & Faust, D. (Eds.). (2020). The Oxford Handbook of Digital Technologies and Mental Health. Oxford University Press.

Ronzitti, S., Soldini, E., Smith, N., Potenza, M.N., Clerici, M., Bowden-Jones, H., 2017. Current suicidal ideation in treatment-seeking individuals in the United Kingdom with gambling problems. Addict. Behav. 74, 33–40.

Rumpf HJ, Achab S, Billieux J, Bowden-Jones H, Carragher N, Demetrovics Z, Higuchi S, King DL, Mann K, Potenza M, Saunders JB, Abbott M, Ambekar A, Aricak OT, Assanangkornchai S, Bahar N, Borges G, Brand M, Chan EM, Chung T, Derevensky J, Kashef AE, Farrell M, Fineberg NA, Gandin C, Gentile DA, Griffiths MD, Goudriaan AE, Grall-Bronnec M, Hao W, Hodgins DC, Ip P, Király O, Lee HK, Kuss D, Lemmens JS, Long J, Lopez-Fernandez O, Mihara S, Petry NM, Pontes HM, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Rehbein F, Rehm J, Scafato E, Sharma M, Spritzer D, Stein DJ, Tam P, Weinstein A, Wittchen HU, Wölfling K, Zullino D, Poznyak V. Including gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective. J Behav Addict. 2018 Jul 16:1-6. doi: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.59.

Rumpf, H. J., Brandt, D., Demetrovics, Z., Billieux, J., Carragher, N., Brand, M., … & Borges, G. (2019). Epidemiological Challenges in the Study of Behavioral Addictions: a Call for High Standard Methodologies. Current Addiction Reports, 1-7.

Starcevic, V., Berle, D., Arnáez, S. et al. The Assessment of Cyberchondria: Instruments for Assessing Problematic Online Health-Related Research. Curr Addict Rep (2020).

Stein, D. J., Billieux, J., Bowden-Jones, H., Grant, J. E., Fineberg, N., Higuchi, S., . . . Potenza, M. N. (2018). Balancing validity, utility and public health considerations in disorders due to addictive behaviours. World psychiatry: official journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 17(3), 363-364.

Su, W., Király, O., Demetrovics, Z., Potenza, M.N., 2019. Gender moderates the partial mediation of impulsivity in the relationship between psychiatric distress and problematic online gaming: Online survey. J. Med. Internet Res. 21.

Tiego, J., Lochner, C., Ioannidis, K. et al. Problematic use of the Internet is a unidimensional quasi-trait with impulsive and compulsive subtypes. BMC Psychiatry 19, 348 (2019).

Tomczyk, Ł., & Selmanagic-Lizde, E. (2018). Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) among youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina—Scale and selected mechanisms. Children and Youth Services Review, 88, 541-549.

Tomczyk, Ł., & Solecki, R. (2019). Problematic internet use and protective factors related to family and free time activities among young people. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 19(3), 1-13.

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Yücel, M., Oldenhof, E., Ahmed, S.H., Belin, D., Billieux, J., Bowden-Jones, H., Carter, A., Chamberlain, S.R., Clark, L., Connor, J., Daglish, M., Dom, G., Dannon, P., Duka, T., Fernandez-Serrano, M.J., Field, M., Franken, I., Goldstein, R.Z., Gonzalez, R., Goudriaan, A.E., Grant, J.E., Gullo, M.J., Hester, R., Hodgins, D.C., Le Foll, B., Lee, R.S.C., Lingford-Hughes, A., Lorenzetti, V., Moeller, S.J., Munafò, M.R., Odlaug, B., Potenza, M.N., Segrave, R., Sjoerds, Z., Solowij, N., van den Brink, W., van Holst, R.J., Voon, V., Wiers, R., Fontenelle, L.F., Verdejo-Garcia, A., 2019. A transdiagnostic dimensional approach towards a neuropsychological assessment for addiction: an international Delphi consensus study. Addiction 114, 1095–1109.

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“Expert appraisal of criteria for assessing gaming disorder: An international Delphi study”
Project Leader: Billieux J; Project coordinator: Jesús Castro-Calvo;
Members of the project: Fineberg NA, Chamberlain SR, Demetrovics Z, Brand M, King D, Carmi L, Yücel M, Rumpf HJ
Lab Head: Addictive and Compulsive Behaviours Lab (ACB-Lab); Health and Behaviour Institute, University of Luxembourg
Associate Researcher: Addictology Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland; Center for Excessive Gambling, Lausanne University Hospitals, Switzerland
“Development of diagnostic criteria for buying-shopping disorder using the Delphi method”
Project Leader: Müller, A and Kyrios M;
Members of the project: Laskowski NM, Trotzke P, Ali K, Fassnacht D, Brand M (COST member), de Zwaan M, Häder M.

Collaborating centers: Center for Behavioral Addiction Research, General Psychology: Cognition, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Institute of Sociology, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

Funding: financially supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) under the “PPP Joint Research” programme and by  the Universities Australia under the Australia-Germany Joint Research Co-operation scheme


International Training School and Conference on Problematic Usage of the Internet (PUI)

dates: 14 – 16th January 2019

Venue: Clare College, Cambridge, UK

Chairs: Naomi A. Fineberg (

Local Organizing Committee: Sam Chamberlain (

Administrator: Natalie Hall (

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Masterclass: New Insights on Addiction Trends in Society

This Masterclass was streamed online on 29thMarch at the University of Hertfordshire as part of an activity of the Internet & Me COST funded project.

By looking at the recording of this event, you will learn more about the neurobiological mechanisms of behavioural addictions as well as the latest trends in Internet, Eating Disorders, Gambling and Exercise addictions.

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Essential downloads

CA16207 Rapporteur Review 2020

Dissemination Plan

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Professional Resources

A new study is the first to compare professional electronic sport (esport) players with recreational video game players and explores the similarities and differences between what motivates each group. While the two groups are psychosocially different, they found that both esport and recreational gamers run the risk of developing internet gaming disorder when their intense immersion in the activity is tied to escapism.

Gaming Disorder Is a Disorder due to Addictive Behaviors: Evidence from Behavioral and Neuroscientific Studies Addressing Cue Reactivity and Craving, Executive Functions, and Decision-Making. This narrative review is aimed at summarizing the scientific evidence suggesting that the core psychological and neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance use disorders and gambling disorder are also involved in gaming disorder.

The Relationship Between Addictive Use of Social Media and Video Games and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study
Over the last decade, research into “addictive technological behaviors” has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games…

Functional impairment matters in the screening and diagnosis of gaming disorder
In recent years, there has been a growing recognition that online video gaming may become excessive and leads to functional impairments and psychological distress. The latest version (fifth edition) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the “Emerging Measures and Models” section and the beta draft of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) includes gaming disorder in its section on “Disorders Due to Substance Use or Addictive Behaviours.”…

Sound of Silence: Comparison of ICT and speech deprivation among students
The aim of the study was two fold: to describe self – reported habits of ICT use in every – day life and to analyze feelings and behavior triggered by ICT and speech deprivation. The study was conducted on three randomly selected groups of students with different tasks: Without Speaking (W/S) group (n=10) spent a day without talking to anyone; Without Technology (W/T) group (n=13) spent a day without using any kind of ICT, while the third group was a control group (n=10) and had no restrictions. The participants’ task in all groups was to write a diary detailing their feelings, thoughts and behaviors related to their group’s conditions. Before the experiment, students reported their ICT related habits. Right after groups were assigned, they reported their task – related impressions. During the experiment, participants wrote diary records at three time-points.

Commentary: Including Gaming Disorder in the ICD-11
The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of
researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective.